1. SMALL SYNAGOGUE BAN
A temporary (usually lasting 30 days) exclusion from the synagogue community.
One was not allowed to eat or drink with the person concerned and had to keep 2 meters away from him.
The condemned person also had to use a separate entrance to the Temple.
2. ENFORCED SYNAGOGUE BAN
During the period of the ban (determined by the Court), the individual was completely shunned and excluded from economic activity, thus could not buy, sell, or work.
3. BIRKAT HA-MINIM
Birkat ha-minim means „the cursing of the heretics“. It was imposed by the Jews in 90 A.D. also on Christians, and meant exclusion from the religious community and from social life in general under threat of death. One was, so to speak, outlawed and forced to emigrate.
An excerpt from the Talmud on Birkat ha-Minim:
"May the NAZARIANS and the sectarians perish as in a moment. Let them be blotted out of the Book of Life and not be written together with the righteous. You are praised, O Lord, who subdues the arrogant."
In Talmudic Hebrew „NOTZRI“ (pronounced “Nazi”) – literally “Followers of Jesus Christ of Nazareth,” means “a Christian”.
In John’s (the Apostel) days, slaves were marked with either branding or tattooing. Soldiers of some armies were also tattooed with a mark, so if they deserted they would be easy to find and capture.
Sometimes the brand was put on the forehead, so everybody could easily see it, sometimes it was put on the hand.
The mark on the forehead, symbolizes the control over the products of the mind. The mark on the hand symbolizes control over the products of our physical work.